The Early History Of Sudan
Sudan was made up of groups of small and independent kingdoms starting from the Christian era till 1820-21, as Egypt took control of the northern part of the country. The Mahdist and the Egypt did not control the regions in the south effectively. Sudan had been the place for the fragmented tribes who were always attacked by the slave raiders.
In the year 1881, Muhammad Ibn Abdalla, a religious leader, declared himself as the Mahdi, who is also known as the Expected One, and started a religious campaign for the unification of the tribes in the west and the central of Sudan. His followers were called the Ansars, a term which is used till today and they are connected to the Umma Party which is led by Sadiq al Mahdi, the descendent of the Mahdi.
As the country was suffering from the Ottoman and Egyptian rule, a nationalist revolt was started by the Mahdi in the year 1885. In a very short time, Mahdi expired, but his empire had survived until the Anglo Egyptians invaded the region in the year 1898 under Lord Kitchener. It was only nominally that the Britain and the Egypt had the control but the British were the ones to have the full control that made policies and were the administrators.
In 1953 February, Egypt and the United Kingdom ended their rule and granted Sudan with self government. The first parliament was inaugurated in the year 1954, and this started the transition period. With the approval of the Britain and Egypt, Sudan got its independence on 1 January 1956.
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